Wednesday, May 2, 2012

Cosmetic surgeon (cosmetisch chirurg)


Accommodation Curacao


Accommodation Curacao

Saturday, March 24, 2012

How to Choose Best Gifts for Women


Gifts for Women

When it comes to thinking about some top gifts for women, most men have a blank look on their face. Buying gifts for women can be a challenge. No matter what the occasion - Christmas, Valentine's Day, anniversary or birthday - men struggle with what to buy the women in their lives. Let's face it, some gifts are better than others, and when it comes to choosing top gifts for women, it's a situation where even God can't help us. I don't know why does it become difficult, but it sure does. When you think about gifting a man something, it's very easy. You just know and you gift. However, searching for some gift ideas for women requires time and a sharp eye for a good gift.

Top Gifts for Women

Spa Gift Card
Instead of asking her what kind of treatment she likes, get her a spa gift card. This way she can choose what she wants to do. For instance, some women like long hours of massage while some might like a makeover session.

Please, don't gift her a face lift cream. When I talk about cosmetics I mean something that smells nice like body oils or body wash. You can also purchase some bath oils which are enough to set the romantic mood. Women love taking care of themselves and smell good too. Gifting her some aromatherapy oils is one of the top gifts for women under 25.

Aromatherapy oils

The list of top gifts for women is incomplete with diamond jewelry or any type of jewelry. Fine jewelry such as diamond earrings and rings have been a favorite gift among women since ancient times. Women and ornaments are just complementary to each other and can never ever be separated. Whether it is a birthday or some festive season one thing that you can always gift to woman is jewellery. No matter of what kind of material it is made of as it will be liked by women in any case. If you also want to gift your lovely lady with something as beautiful as her then jewellery gift will be the best suitable thing.
Jewelry can reflect all kinds of meanings to women and it is highly regarded. Below are some with the reasons jewelry can make the perfect gift for women.

Reading Device
Women of the 21st century love technology more than men. So gifting her a wireless reading device is a good option. Women love to read and this device ensures that reading for you is easy and comfortable. As it's lightweight it can be fitted in travel bags and you can also carry it everywhere without any hassles.

Watch Gifts Ideas for Her

A watch is a great gift for women. Even if she already has a watch, every woman needs more than one. If her current watch is sporty or every day, maybe buy her a dressy watch to wear for going out. If she already has a fancy watch, go for something trendier. Fossil has a great selection of both types of watches for women.

Music Presents for Women

If buying any kind of popular music gadget like an iPod (get it in one of the new bright colors), preload it with all of her favorite songs. If not sure what music she likes, safe music choices for most older women include Michael Bublé, Celine Dion and Barbra Streisand, and Gwen Stefani, Fergie, Rhianna and Nelly Furtado for younger women.

Leather Jewelry Box

In many cases, the person sending the gift want to give recievers a big surprise. Leather jewelry box is such a gift. Leather jewlry boxes are a terrific way to store your dearest keepsakes, trinkets and of course, jewelry. Learn more about picking the right leather jewelery boxes. Picking out the right sort of leather jewelry boxes can be a somewhat difficult decision. There are so many different types, finding one that you will adore, or the perfect type to be gifted, can be practically impossible. While all feature similar overall styles, you’ll find that really no two leather jewelry boxes are identical. For that reason, you want to make your decision carefully, and think about the factors that will be most important to the person that you are looking to purchase the box for. Shopping for yourself is always going to be easy, as you already know what you like. But shopping for someone else is going to take some effort on you part, so that you can guarantee you find the box that they’ll love

How to manage time effectively

If you We don't get enough hours in the day to get everything done properly then it is the perfect guide for you. 
At first make a plan. Make a priority list. As you march through the list, you will get a real sense of achievement. If you can, do the jobs you hate most first. That lifts a weight off your shoulders for the rest of the day.
If you have a big project to complete, divide it up into small pieces; this way it won't seem so daunting.
Be organised. Allocate a place for everything and make sure everything is in its place. Train your spouse and kids to keep to this principle too.
 As soon as you get something that requires action DO IT right now, if possible. If someone else can do it, then DELEGATE IT. If you really don't have time to do it now, DEFER IT, but make sure you go through your deferred paperwork or practical work as soon as possible. If it's something that doesn't need to be done or junk that lands on your doormat or in your email basket, then DROP IT. Delete it, bin it or ignore it.
Follow these tips and you will soon be less stressed and have more time.

Research indicates that successful men and women all around the world, in a wide variety of professions, have found the following time-management strategies to be highly effective:
* Do not overload yourself by insisting on doing everything yourself. Your husband, wife or kids can help out around the house and make your life easier. It will also help you to save time so you can get other tasks done. You should consider hiring either full or part time help. You can easily find someone to help you do a variety of chores around the house which may include cleaning your house, doing the laundry, ironing, or helping with the cooking duties.
*Learn to set priorities and also to just say NO. You must decide what jobs are most important and need done first. Do not let little things get in the way if you can possibly help it.
*Do not let yourself feel obligated every time someone asks you to do something for them. This includes charitable organizations, school activities, and, even when someone in your family asks you to do something that you do not have time for.
* Avoid procrastination
The first step is always the hardest to take. But it is an important start whatever you wish to undertake. Accumulating any work for later or the next day or next month, may fail to materialize. So go ahead and catch the bull by its horns and get started on doing what you have to do today.
* Set a deadline
Setting a deadline is the simplest and most effective technique of time-management. Assigning time limits to any task or work on hand urges you to complete the particular task on time. Once positive result is ensued, a good amount of leisure time is left for you to pursue any other activity you please.
* Concentrate
Concentration entails filtering out whatever is irrelevant to your line of work at that particular moment in time. It means defining your goal accurately and moving on to the next, once it is attained. This technique is highly relevant in time-management.

* Spend time wisely
It is of great importance how you make use of the twenty-four hours. You could use it wisely or let it drift away. This means you learn to prioritize; time like money, has a way of disappearing unless we budget the hours and minutes of the day. It's only when we keep track of the minutes and hours ticking by, we'd be able to complete our targeted work in time.
Make the best use of the leisure hours and get your life back on track by managing your time more effectively.

What we do with our time and our lives, matter. Instead of letting our work just happen, we can enhance it positively and transform its productivity by adopting the above time-management strategies. This can make your work a stimulating, rewarding and gratifying force in your life.
“Time is like a river. We cannot touch the same water twice because the flow that has passed will never pass again.”-Anon

How to Manage Your Time Effectively

Write Down Your Goals

  • Write down what would you like to accomplish during a week and this will help you figure out how to make your actual week look more like your ideal one.
  1. For each of the areas mentioned above, write down how much time you'd be spending per week on each if you were managing your time in an ideal way.
  2. Take the principles of work-life balance into consideration.
  3. Now contrast your ideal schedule against your present reality. Note in each area where you are spending more or less time than you'd like. Although you believe that you should be setting aside 10 hours in which to enjoy your leisure activities, you might find that you're not spending more than two or three a week on your hobbies.

10 Effective Time Management Tips

Saturday, March 17, 2012

Women's health-Low Backache

Low Backache
The term includes many types of pain on the lower part of the back viz,, pain at the sacrum, coccyx, on the lumbar spine, soreness on the back and sciatica; low backache is more common in women than in men.
A. Gynaecological causes. These form less important causes of low backache. The causes may be as follows: (1) Uterine prolapse withretroversion may drag on the pelvic ligaments causing backache; this gets relieved on lying. (2) tubo‑ovarian mass, parametritis and chronic cervicitis ; (3) benign and malignant pelvic tumours‑im­pacted uterine fibroid or ovarian cyst, pelvic endametriosis, advanced carcinoma of cervix, retroperitoneal tumour; (4) postoperative because of sacro‑iliac strain following gynaecological operation in lithotomy position under anaesthesia; (5) Premenstrual low pain especially in premenstrual syndrome.
Site of backache due to gynaecological cause is sacral but never extends above fourth lumbar vertebra; it has got bilateral distribution but not localised. Causes mentioned above do not necessarily produce backache in all cases.
I. Orthopaedic causes. These are the commonest cause. There are numerous factors that can play. Some important ones are the following-
(i) Sacro‑iliac strain or subluxation‑this often follows preg­nancy and labour. Pain is felt on lifting weight or stooping move­ment. There may be tenderness at the sacroiliac joint; (ii) postural cause‑muscular and ligamentary strain on the back is possible due to postural defect. Obesity may also cause such strain ; (iii) Spinal arthritis ; (iv) congenital anomalies‑sacralization of last lumbar vertebra or lumbarisation of first sacral vertebra, spina bifida occulta may cause back pain; (v) lumbago‑this is due to myositis of the lumbar region; (vi) coccygodynia‑pain at the coccyx commonly following labour. Tenderness can be elicited on movement of the coccyx ; (vii) other spinal diseases‑prolapse of intervertebral disc, caries spine, spinal cord compression.
Sites of pain in orthopaedic cause vary according to the particular lesion‑ But pain tends to be localised with tenderness at a site; pain is also related to exercise or rest. Sacroiliac strain becomes worse at night while lying flat on back or turning to the side.
II. Nonorthopaedic causes.
  • (1) Renal pain‑distribution of pain is characteristic i.e. uni­lateral arising at the Join.
  • (2) Rectal pain. Constipation, rectal spasm or carcinoma may have sacral pain or discomfort.
In some cases, no demonstrable cause for backache can be found. Psychological upset is alleged to be a factor to play in this group.
Investigations. 1. Careful history taking, thorough clinical examination of the patient's general condition, pelvic condition, should be done. Examination of spine and back especially for any local tenderness is essential. Radiology of lurnbosacral region is al­ways taken to detect any evident lesion. Urological investigations should be taken up in cases suggesting the cause.
2. Cases showing no gynaecological factor for backache should be referred to the orthopaedic surgeon.
Treatment. This is done according to the cause. The gynae­cological causes are treated. For the orthopaedic causes, local ap­plication of heat, local massage of some liniment, rest, analgesics can be instituted before the orthopaedist takes up the cause for treatment.

Anatomy of Low Back

The first step to understanding the various causes of low back pain is learning about the normal design (anatomy) of the tissues of this area. Important structures of the low back that can be related to symptoms there include the bony lumbar spine (vertebrae), discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
The bony lumbar spine is designed so that vertebrae "stacked" together can provide a movable support structure while also protecting the spinal cord (nervous tissue that extends down the spinal column from the brain) from injury. Each vertebrae has a spinous process, a bony prominence behind the spinal cord, which shields the cord's nervous tissue. They also have a strong bony "body" in front of the spinal cord to provide a platform suitable for weight bearing of all tissues above the buttocks. The lumbar vertebrae stack immediately atop the sacrum bone in between the buttocks. On each side, the sacrum meets the iliac bone of the pelvis to form the sacroiliac joint of the buttocks.
The discs are pads that serve as "cushions" between each vertebral body. They help to minimize the impact of stress forces on the spinal column. Each disc is designed like a jelly donut with a central softer component (nucleus pulposus) and a surrounding outer ring (annulus fibrosus). The central portion of the disc is capable of rupturing (herniating) through the outer ring, causing irritation of adjacent nervous tissue and sciatica, as described below.
Ligaments are strong fibrous soft tissues that firmly attach bones to bones. Ligaments attach each of the vertebrae and surround each of the discs.
The nerves that provide sensation and stimulate the muscles of the low back as well as the lower extremities (the thighs, legs, feet, and toes) exit the spinal column through bony portals called "foramen."
Many muscle groups that are responsible for flexing, extending, and rotating the waist, as well as moving the lower extremities, attach to the lumbar spine through tendon insertions.
The aorta and blood vessels that transport blood to and from the lower extremities pass in front of the lumbar spine in the abdomen and pelvis. Surrounding these blood vessels are lymph glands and involuntary nervous system tissues, which are important in maintaining bladder and bowel control.
The uterus and ovaries are important pelvic structures in front of the pelvic area of women. The prostate gland is a significant pelvic structure in men. The kidneys are on either side of the back of the lower abdomen, in front of the lumbar spine.
The skin over the lumbar area is supplied by nerves that come from nerve roots that exit from the lumbar spine.

Function of the low back

The low back, or lumbar area, serves a number of important functions for the human body. These functions include structural support, movement, and protection of certain body tissues.
When we stand, the lower back is functioning to hold most of the weight of the body. When we bend, extend or rotate at the waist, the lower back is involved in the movement. Therefore, injury to the structures important for weight bearing, such as the bony spine, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, often can be detected when the body is standing erect or used in various movements.
Protecting the soft tissues of the nervous system and spinal cord as well as nearby organs of the pelvis and abdomen is a critical function the lumbar spine and its adjacent muscles.
Common causes of low back pain include lumbar strain, nerve irritation, lumbar radiculopathy, bony encroachment, and conditions of the bone and joints. Each of these is reviewed below.
  1. Lumbar strain (acute, chronic)
    A lumbar strain is a stretching injury to the ligaments, tendons, and/or muscles of the low back. The stretching incident results in microscopic tears of varying degrees in these tissues. Lumbar strain is considered one of the most common causes of low back pain. The injury can occur because of overuse, improper use, or trauma. Soft-tissue injury is commonly classified as "acute" if it has been present for days to weeks. If the strain lasts longer than three months, it is referred to as "chronic."
    Lumbar strain most often occurs in people in their forties, but it can happen at any age. The condition is characterized by localized discomfort in the low back area with onset after an event that mechanically stressed the lumbar tissues. The severity of the injury ranges from mild to severe, depending on the degree of strain and resulting spasm of the muscles of the low back.
    The diagnosis of lumbar strain is based on the history of injury, the location of the pain, and exclusion of nervous system injury. Usually, x-ray testing is only helpful to exclude bone abnormalities.
    The treatment of lumbar strain consists of resting the back (to avoid re-injury), medications to relieve pain and muscle spasm, local heat applications, massage, and eventual (after the acute episode resolves) reconditioning exercises to strengthen the low back and abdominal muscles. Long periods of inactivity in bed are no longer promoted, as this treatment may actually slow recovery. Spinal manipulation for periods of up to one month has been found helpful in some patients that do not have signs of nerve irritation. Future injury is avoided by using back-protection techniques during activities and support devices as needed at home or work.
  1. Nerve irritation
    The nerves of the lumbar spine can be irritated by mechanical impingement or disease any where along their paths—from their roots at the spinal cord to the skin surface. These conditions include lumbar disc disease (radiculopathy), bony encroachment, and inflammation of the nerves caused by a viral infection (shingles). See discussions of these conditions below.
  2. Lumbar radiculopathy
    Lumbar radiculopathy is nerve irritation that is caused by damage to the discs between the vertebrae. Damage to the disc occurs because of degeneration ("wear and tear") of the outer ring of the disc, traumatic injury, or both. As a result, the central softer portion of the disc can rupture (herniate) through the outer ring of the disc and abut the spinal cord or its nerves as they exit the bony spinal column. This rupture is what causes the commonly recognized "sciatica" pain that shoots down the leg. Sciatica can be preceded by a history of localized low-back aching or it can follow a "popping" sensation and be accompanied by numbness and tingling. The pain commonly increases with movements at the waist and can increase with coughing or sneezing. In more severe instances, sciatica can be accompanied by incontinence of the bladder and/or bowels.
    Lumbar radiculopathy is suspected based on the above symptoms. Increased radiating pain when the lower extremity is lifted supports the diagnosis. Nerve testing (EMG/electromyogram and NCV/nerve conduction velocity) of the lower extremities can be used to detect nerve irritation. The actual disc herniation can be detected with radiology testing, such as CAT or MRI scanning.
    Treatment of lumbar radiculopathy ranges from medical management to surgery. Medical management includes patient education, medications to relieve pain and muscles spasm, cortisone injection around the spinal cord (epidural injection), physical therapy (heat, massage, ultrasound, electrical stimulation), and rest (not strict bed rest, but avoiding re-injury). With unrelenting pain, severe impairment of function, or incontinence (which can indicate spinal cord irritation), surgery may be necessary. The operation performed depends on the overall status of the spine, and the age and health of the patient. Procedures include removal of the herniated disc with laminotomy (a small hole in the bone of the lumbar spine surrounding the spinal cord), laminectomy (removal of the bony wall), by needle technique (percutaneous discectomy), disc-dissolving procedures (chemonucleolysis), and others.
  1. Bony encroachment
    (compression of the nerve roots or spinal cord by bony spurs or other soft tissues in the spinal canal). Spinal-nerve compression in these conditions can lead to sciatica pain that radiates down the lower extremities. Spinal stenosis can cause lower-extremity pains that worsen with Any condition that results in movement or growth of the vertebrae of the lumbar spine can limit the space (encroachment) for the adjacent spinal cord and nerves. Causes of bony encroachment of the spinal nerves include foraminal narrowing (narrowing of the portal through which the spinal nerve passes from the spinal column, out of the spinal canal to the body), spondylolisthesis (slippage of one vertebra relative to another), and spinal stenosiswalking and are relieved by resting (mimicking poor circulation). Treatment of these afflictions varies, depending on their severity, and range from rest to surgical decompression by removing the bone that is compressing the nervous tissue.
  1. Bone and joint conditions
    Bone and joint conditions that lead to low back pain include those existing from birth (congenital), those that result from wear and tear (degenerative) or injury, and those that are from inflammation of the joints (arthritis).
Congenital bone conditions—Congenital causes (existing from birth) of low back pain include scoliosis and spina bifida. Scoliosis is a sideways (lateral) curvature of the spine that can be caused when one lower extremity is shorter than the other (functional scoliosis) or because of an abnormal design of the spine (structural scoliosis). Children who are significantly affected by structural scoliosis may require treatment with bracing and/or surgery to the spine. Adults infrequently are treated surgically but often benefit by support bracing.
Spina bifida is a birth defect in the bony vertebral arch over the spinal canal, often with absence of the spinous process. This birth defect most commonly affects the lowest lumbar vertebra and the top of the sacrum. Occasionally, there are abnormal tufts of hair on the skin of the involved area. Spina bifida can be a minor bony abnormality without symptoms. However, the condition can also be accompanied by serious nervous abnormalities of the lower extremities.
Degenerative bone and joint conditions—As we age, the water and protein content of the body's cartilage changes. This change results in weaker, thinner, and more fragile cartilage. Because both the discs and the joints that stack the vertebrae (facet joints) are partly composed of cartilage, these areas are subject to wear and tear over time (degenerative changes). Degeneration of the disc is called spondylosis. Spondylosis can be noted on x-rays of the spine as a narrowing of the normal "disc space" between the vertebrae. It is the deterioration of the disc tissue that predisposes the disc to herniation and localized lumbar pain ("lumbago") in older patients. Degenerative arthritis (osteoarthritis) of the facet joints is also a cause of localized lumbar pain that can be detected with plain x-ray testing. These causes of degenerative back pain are usually treated conservatively with intermittent heat, rest, rehabilitative exercises, and medications to relieve pain, muscle spasm, and inflammation.
Injury to the bones and joints—Fractures (breakage of bone) of the lumbar spine and sacrum bone most commonly affect elderly people with osteoporosis, especially those who have taken long-term cortisone medication. For these individuals, occasionally even minimal stresses on the spine (such as bending to tie shoes) can lead to bone fracture. In this setting, the vertebra can collapse (vertebral compression fracture). The fracture causes an immediate onset of severe localized pain that can radiate around the waist in a band-like fashion and is made intensely worse with body motions. This pain generally does not radiate down the lower extremities. Vertebral fractures in younger patients occur only after severe trauma, such as from motor-vehicle accidents or a convulsive seizure.
In both younger and older patients, vertebral fractures take weeks to heal with rest and pain relievers. Compression fractures of vertebrae associated with osteoporosis can also be treated with a procedure called vertebroplasty, which can help to reduce pain. In this procedure, a balloon is inflated in the compressed vertebra, often returning some of its lost height. Subsequently, a "cement" (methymethacrylate) is injected into the balloon and remains to retain the structure.
Arthritis—The spondyloarthropathies are inflammatory types of arthritis that can affect the lower back and sacroiliac joints. Examples of spondyloarthropathies include reactive arthritis (Reiter's disease), ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and the arthritis of inflammatory bowel disease. Each of these diseases can lead to low back pain and stiffness, which is typically worse in the morning. These conditions usually begin in the second and third decades of life. They are treated with medications directed toward decreasing the inflammation. Newer biologic medications have been greatly successful in both quieting the disease and stopping the progression.

Treatment of low back pain

So, how is low back pain treated? Well, as described above, the treatment very much depends on the precise cause of the low back pain. Moreover, each patient must be individually evaluated and managed in the context of the underlying background health status and activity level.
As was recently highlighted by research presented at the national meeting of the American College of Rheumatology, a very important aspect of the individual evaluation is the patient's own perception of their particular situation. Researchers from Britain found that those who believed that their symptoms had serious consequences on their lives and that they had, or treatments had, little control over their symptoms were more likely to have a poor outcome. This research points out to physicians the importance of addressing the concerns and perceptions that patients have about their condition during the initial evaluations.
Finally, it should be noted that the conditions listed above are intended for general review. There are many other causes of back pain that have not been discussed.
Low Back Pain At A Glance
  • Functions of the low back, or lumbar area, include structural support, movement, and protection of certain body tissues.
  • Symptoms in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
  • Treatment of low back pain is directed toward a diagnosed or suspected cause.

Herbal Cure for Backache

Backache can be caused by an accident or an injury to the spine. Backache is generally a gripping pain near the inward curve of the back above the base of the spine. Back problems affect all kinds of people, men as much as women and young as well as old. Back is an important organ that bears the entire body weight. In the contemporary times. Sedentary living habits, hazardous work patterns and psychological conditions associated with emotional stress, which bring about spasm of the muscles, cause backaches. As the back bears the weight of the entire body, overweight persons feel the strain on the back when they have to carry an extra load. In most cases of backache, the pain is usually felt either in the middle of the back or lower down. It may spread to both sides of the waist and the hips. In a condition of acute pain, the patient is unable to move and is bedridden. Many people experience back pain as they age and their joint tissues deteriorate or shift. Psychological tension, stress, or anxiety about everyday problems can also lead to backache. In addition, back pain can result from diseases of the kidneys, heart, lungs, intestinal tract, or reproductive organs. Other causes include stress and strain resulting from sitting for a long time, improper lifting of weights, high heels, and emotional problems which may cause painful muscle cramping.
Backache caused is degenerative disease, metabolic diseases or congenital. Acute or chronic illnesses like kidney or prostate problems, female disorders, Influenza, and arthritis, may also lead to backache. It can be the result of developmental problems or a tumour. Use this list as a basis of the possible causes of back pain. Backaches occasionally stem from a congenital (present from birth) malformation. In such cases, pain generally results from the unusual stresses that the deformity imposes on surrounding muscular structures rather than from the abnormality itself. Severe back pain may also be accompanied by pain or numbness radiating down one or both legs. Though most muscular back pains disappear within a week or two of their onset, some can last one to two months. Pain may recur unless preventive measures are taken. Usually the pain is felt in the middle of the back or in the lower back. When the pain aggravates, it tends to spread to both sides of the waist and hips. When the pain becomes very acute, the patient is recommended bed rest for sometime. Most patients suffer from a problem referred to as cervical and lumbar spondylosis, in which the spine tends to lose its flexibility.
Herbal Remedies Cure for Backache
1.Use of garlic. Two or three cloves should be taken every morning to get results. An oil prepared from garlic and rubbed on the back will give great relief.
2.Lemon is another useful remedy for backache.
3.Raw potato is an ancient home remedy for backache, characterised by incapacitating pain in the lumbar region, especially in the lower part of the back.
4.Fish oil taken daily, is the least expensive and most effective manner in which to eliminate backache, joint pain, pains in the wrists.
5.Mixture of powdered sonth, sweet soda and salt if consumed with hot milk or water can alleviate your backache problems.
6.While sleeping, sleep on a firm mattress. Avoid sleeping face down.
7.Heat may be applied with hot water bottle or infrared lamp for temporary relief in the area.
8.Drink some hot milk or water with powdered sonth, meetha soda, and namak.
9.Colchicine - may help with back pain caused by a herniated disc (note: colchicine may have adverse side effects).
10.Willow Bark - used when experiencing pain due to inflammation.
11.Cayenne Pepper - can be applied topically to areas of pain (a counter irritant).
12.Devil's Claw - may reduce accute lower back pain.
13.Ginger - used to decrease inflammation and associated back pain.
14.Eucalyptus and Peppermint Oil - a combination of eucalyptus and peppermint oil applied topically to area of pain (a counter irritant).
15.Turmeric - has anti-inflammatory effects with possible treatment of low back pain.
Friday, March 9, 2012

Cervical Cancer Vaccine - Offering New Hope


Cervical Cancer | Human Papiloma Virus

Cervical cancer has been studied to have an infectious origin. A certain virus, namely, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been isolated from cytological (cellular) specimens collected from the cervix of cervical cancer patients
Undoubtedly, vaccination is the most convenient method to prevent diseases. The good news is that we now have this most sought after preventive measure for cancer. Although not all cancers can be prevented by vaccines, cervical cancer has emerged as one of the first cancers that can be prevented by vaccination.
Cervical cancer has been studied to have an infectious origin. A certain virus, namely, Human Papilloma Virus HPV has been isolated cytological (cellular) specimens collected from the cervix of cervical cancer patient. This gives a strong relationship between cancer of the cervix and HPV, which plays a vital role in triggering a mutation that causes the cancer. Human papilloma virus has also been linked to other parts of female genital tract, male genital tract and also the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. However, cervical cancer seems to have a strong relationship with HHV, as it was isolated from almost all the studied cases of cervical cancer.

Cervical Cancer

 Protected from HPV ... Johanna Roberts, 12, and mum Allison, who agreed for her daughter to take part in the school vaccination program. Picture: Troy Bendeich  Source: The Daily Telegraph
Protected from HPV ... Johanna Roberts, 12, and mum Allison, who agreed for her daughter to take part in the school vaccination program. Picture: Troy Bendeich Source: The Daily Telegraph

Human Papilloma Virus | Cervical Cancer

Human Papilloma Virus is DNA virus, and its major types operating , in cancer are HPV types 6,11, 16 and 18. Studies reveal that HPV 16 and 18 are more aggressive, and responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer worldwide, and about 50% of pro-cancerous lesions. HPV 6 and 11 are somewhat milder, and mostly implicated in causing genital warts, which are non malignant condition frequently seen in young promiscuous individuals.
With the help of recent research, two vaccines have been formulated. One of them targets four HPV types  6, 11, 16, and 18. The other vaccine mainly ads against HPV types 16 and 18. These vaccines have been tested and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (PDA) of United States and also by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA).
The tetravalent vaccine (vaccines against 4 types of HPV; 6,11,16,18) may be used to give protection against both the precancerous, cancerous and also the non cancerous or non malignant infections caused by HPV. However, bivalent vaccines (vaccine against two types of HPV -16,18) are known to provide protection against cancer of the cervix, pre-cancerous lesion of the vagina or vulva. By pre-cancerous, we mean to say that this lesion by itself is not malignant but may proceed or inherently become cancerous or malignant with a potential to spread to the surrounding area and onwards.
HPV vaccines have been successful in thousands of young women providing them high efficacy of the vaccine, immune response and protection against HPV as documented by the follow up of 5 -6 years.

Limitations of HPV vaccines

There is no sufficient data lo predict the long term protection of these vaccines. The long-term efficacy and protection rendered against cancer by these vaccine is still under surveillance in large phase studies, consisting of thousands of individuals.
These vaccines provide protection against cervical cancer in HPV negative individuals, fn other words, these vaccines are of little help in already diagnose cases of cervical cancer, as they will not play any role in modifying an establish disease process.
Young women who have already been exposed to HPV, due to sexual promiscuity or contact, and those who may not show any symptoms of the disease, or in other words, are asymptomatic carriers of the virus in their body, may have little or no protection by these vaccines.
These bivalent and tetravalent HPV vaccines may have little role against other types of HPV causing cancers, i.e., other high risk HPV types (26, 53 and 66) and low risk HPV types (40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81 and CP6108.) [2]
Another line that limits the incorporation of HPV vaccines into the present era is the cost of these vaccines, which exceeds the affordability of many countries, especially the developing countries that make the majority of cervical cancers detected worldwide.
In summary, cervical cancer screening programs still remain the mainstay of prevention against this deadly yet soon to become a vaccine preventable disease.

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